College: College of Medicine and Health Sciences
Job Title: Associate professor of Child Health and Public Health
Department:Health systems and Policy
Qualifications: Diploma, Bsc, MPH and PhD
Telephone number:+251-911 38 54 23/ +251-902090307
- Biks GA, Tariku A and Tessema GA. Effects of antenatal care and institutional delivery on exclusive breastfeeding practice in northwest Ethiopia: a nested case-control study. International Breastfeeding Journal. 2015; 10:30 DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0055-4.
- Tariku A, Biks GA, Wassie MM, Gebeyehu A, Getie AA. Factors associated with prelacteal feeding in the rural population of northwest Ethiopia: a community cross-sectional study. International Breastfeeding Journal 2016, 11: 14
- HuluagreshBitew, Gashaw Andargie, Agitu Tadesse, Amsalu Belete, WubalemFekadu, &TesfaMekonen. Suicidal Ideation, Attempt, and Determining Factors among HIV/AIDS Patients, Ethiopia. Depression Research and Treatment. 2016;6: Article ID 8913160
- Alemu YM, Biks GA, Gebeye E. High Incidence of Tuberculosis in the Absence of Isoniazid and Cotrimoxazole Preventive Therapy in Children Living with HIV in Northern Ethiopia: A RetrospectiveFollow-UpStudy.PLoSONE. 2016; 11(4)
- Dawit Alemayehu Chekol, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw and Yayehirad Alemu Melsew. Exclusive breastfeeding and mothers’ employment status in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional Study. International Breastfeeding Journal. 2017; 12:27
- Tsega Hagos, TinsaeBerihun, Abebe Assefa and Gashaw Andarge. Women Engagement in Business: Evidence from Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Culture, Society and Development. 2017, 36.
- Tsega Hagos, TinsaeBerihun, Abebe Assefa and Gashaw Andarge. Women’s position in house hold decision making and violence in marriage: The case of North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and development studies. 2017;5(4):63-70.
- Amare Tariku, Gashaw Andargie Biks, TerefeDerso, MollaMeseleWassie& Solomon Mekonnen Abebe. Stunting and its determinant factors among children aged 6-59 months in Ethiopia. Italian Journal of Paediatrics. 2017; 43:112 DOI 10.1186/s13052-017-0433-1
- Derso T, Biks GA, Tariku A, Tebeje NB, Gizaw Z, Muchie KF, Shimeka A, Kebede Y, Abebe SM, Yitayal M, Awoke, T AW, Azmeraw T, Birku M, Fekadu A, Asrade G, Gebeyehu A, Tesfahun A, Alemu K. Correlates of early neonatal feeding practice in Dabat HDSS site, northwest Ethiopia. International Breastfeeding Journal. 2017; 12: 25.
- Derso T, Tariku A, Biks GA and Wassie MM. Stunting, wasting and associated factors among children aged 6-24 months in Dabat health and demographic surveillance system site: A community based cross sectional study in Ethiopia. BMC Pediatrics. 2017; 17:96
- KindieFentahunMuchie, Kassahun Alemu, Amare Tariku, AdinoTesfahunTsegaye, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, MezgebuYitayal, Tadesse Awoke and Gashaw Andargie Bik. Rural households at risk of malaria did not own sufficient insecticide treated nets at Dabat HDSS site: evidence from a cross sectional re-census. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17:888 DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4906-3
- Amare Tariku, Gashaw Andargie Biks, MollaMeseleWassie, AbebawGebeyehu Worku &MelakuKindieYenit. Only half of the mothers practiced early initiation of breastfeeding in Northwest Ethiopia, 2015. BMC Res Notes. 2017; 10:501 DOI 10.1186/s13104-017-2823-2
- Workneh SG, Biks GA, Woreta SA. Community based health insurance and communities scheme requirment compliance in Thehuledere district, northeast Ethioia: Cross sectional study . Clinico Economics and Outcomes Research. 2017; 9:353-359
- BD Bitew, YK Gete, GA Biks, TT Adafrie. Knowledge, Attitude, and practice of mothers/Caregivers on household water treatment methods in Northwest Ethioia: A Community- Based Cross- Sectional Study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017, 7; 97(3): 914–922.
- Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, Gashaw Andargie, Alemayehu Shimeka, Kassahun Alemu, Yigzaw Kebede, Mamo Wubeshet, Amare Tariku, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Mulugeta Bayisa, Mezegebu Yitayal, Tadesse Awoke, Temsegen Azemeraw, Melkamu Birku. The prevalence of non-communicabe diseases in northwest Ethioia: Survey of Dabat Health and Demographic Survillance System. BMJ Open 2017; 7:e015496. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2016-015496.
- M Tsegaw, G Andargie, G Alem, M Tareke. Screening HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among HIV postive patinets attending antiretroviral therapy in South Wollo, Ethioia. Journal of psychiatric research, 85 (2017) 37e41.
- TerefeDerso, Amare Tariku, FekaduAmbaw, MarewAlemenhew, Gashaw Andargie Biks and AnshaNega. Socio-demographic factors and availability of piped fountains affect food hygiene practice of food handlers in Bahir Dar Town, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2017; 10:628 DOI 10.1186/s13104-017-2965-2
- Y Kebede, G Andargie, A Gebeyehu, T Awoke. Tuberculosis and HIV are the leading casuses of adult death in northwest Ethioia: Evidence from verbal autopsy data of dabat health and Demographic surveillance system, 2007-2013. Population health metrics, 2017.
- Mulugeta Bayisa Chala, Solomon Mekonnen, Gashaw Andargie, Yigzaw Kebede, Mezegebu Yitayal, Kassahun Alemu, Tadesse Awoke, Mamo Wubeshet, Temsegen Azemeraw, Melkamu Birku, Amare Tariku, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Alemayehu Shimeka and Zemichael Gizaw. Prevalence of disability and associated factors in Dabat Health and Demographic Survillance System Site, North West Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2107; 17:762 DOI 10.1186/s 12889-017-4763-0.
- Bogale TN, Worku AG, Bikis GA, Kebede TZ. Why gone too soon? Examining social determinants of neonatal deaths in northwest Ethiopia using the three-delay model approach. BMC Pediatrics (2017) 17:216
- Amare Tariku, Kassahun Alemu, ZemichaelGizaw ,KindieFentahunMuchie, TerefeDerso, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, MezgebuYitayal, Abel Fekadu, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Geta Asrade Alemayehu, AdinoTesfahunTsegaye, Alemayehu Shimeka , Gashaw Andargie Biks. Mothers’ education and ANC visit improved exclusive breastfeeding in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site, northwest Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 12(6): e0179056. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0179056
- Tariku A, Biks GA, Woldie H, Wassie MM and Worku AG. Child wasting is asevere public health problem in the predominanetly rural population of Ethioia: A commuinty based cross-sectional study. Archives of Public Helath .2017; 75: 26 DOI 10.1186/s13690-017-0194-8.
- Bikes DB, Yigzaw KG, Biks GA&Adafrie TT. The effect of SODIS water treatment intervention at the household level in reducing diarrheal incidence among children under 5 years of age: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia. BMC Trials, 2018; 19:412.
- Tariku Nigatu Bogale, AbebawGebeyehu Worku, Alemayehu Worku Yalew, Biks, GAZemene Tigabu Kebede. Causal Beliefs Affect Treatment Practices and Preferences for Neonatal Danger Signs in Northwest Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2018; 98(6):1653-1660.
- Amare LisanuMazengia& Predictors of Stunting among School-Age Children in Northwestern Ethiopia. J NutrMetab. 2018; 2018:7521751
- MollaMeseleWassie, Zegeye Abebe, Amare Tariku, EjiguGebeye, Tadese Awoke, AzebAtenafuGete, Melkie Edris Yesuf, Yigzaw Kebede, BiksGA& Shao Jia Zhou. Iodine status five years after the mandatory salt iodization legislation indicates above requirement: a cross sectional study in Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Nutrition. 2018; 4:52 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0261-8
- Solomon Kassahun, Gashaw Andargie& Desta DebalkeAtnafu. Willingness to join a village-based health insurance scheme (Iddir) in Dessie town, Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2018; 32(4):249-256
- Geta Asrade Alemayehu, Abel Fekadu, Mezgebu Yitayal, Yigzaw Kebede, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Zemichael Gizaw, Mamo Wubeshet, Kindie Fentahun Muchie, Abebaw Addis Gelagay, Temesgen Azmeraw, Melkamu Birku, Kassahun Alemu, Amare Tariku, Terefe Derso, Adino Tesfahun, Nigusie Birhan Tebeje, Zemene Tigabu, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Getu Debalkie and Gashaw Andargie Biks. Prevalence and determinants of contraceptive utilization among married women at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia. BMC Women’s Health. 2018; 18:118. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0611-3
- Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Fasil Tessema, Befikadu Tariku, SemawFeredeAbera ,AlemsegedAregayGebrud , Nega Assefa, Desalew Zelalem, MelkamuDedefoe , MekdesKondalc , MesfinKotec , MitikeMollaSisayf , Wubegzier Mekonnen, Mamo WubshetTerefe , Gashaw Andargie Biks, Firehywot Eshetu , MulumebetAbera, YosephFekadu , GessessewBugssa Hailu, EtsehiwotTilahun and YihunieLakew. Injury-related gaining momentum as external causes of deaths in Ethiopian health and demographic surveillance sites: evidence from verbal autopsy study. Global Health Action. 2018; 11
- Adino Tesfahun , Amare Tariku, Abebaw Gebeyehu , Solomon Mekonnen , Mezgebu Yitayal, Tadesse Awoke, Kassahun Alemu and Gashaw Andargie Biks. Reducing amount and frequency of meal as a major coping strategy for food insecurity. Archives of Public Health. 2018; 76:56.
- Gashaw Andargie Biks, Amare Tariku, Molla Mesele Wassie and Terefe Derso. Mother’s Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) knowledge improved timely initiation of complementary feeding of children aged 6-24 months in the rural population of northwest Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes. 2018; 11:593.
- Bogale TN, Worku AG, Yalew AW, Bikis GA, Kebede TZ. Mothers treatment seeking intention for neonatal danger signs in northwest Ethiopia: A structural equation modeling. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13(12): e0209959.
- Abel Fekadu ,MezgebuYitayal , Geta Asrade Alemayehu, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, Tadesse Awoke Ayele , Amare Tariku, Gashaw Andargie , DestawFetene Teshome & Kassahun Alemu Gelaye. Frequent Antenatal Care Visits Increase Institutional Delivery at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Pregnancy. 2019; 6.
- Amare Tariku, Aysheshim Kassahun Belew, KedirAbdelaGonete, Melkamu Tamir Hunegnaw, Esmael Ali Muhammad, GetuDebalkieDemissie, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Tadesse Awoke, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, EjiguGebeyeZeleke, Zegeye Abebe, AzebAtnafuGete, Melkie Edris Yesuf, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, Yigzaw Kebede Gete, Abebaw Addis Gelagay, Abel Fekadu, KindieFentahunMuchie&MollaMeseleWassie. Stunting and Its Determinants among Adolescent Girls: Findings from the Nutrition Surveillance Project, Northwest Ethiopia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2019; DOI: 1080/03670244.2019.1636793
- Tsega Hagos Mirach, GetuDebalkieDemissie&Gashaw Andargie Biks. Determinants of community-based health insurance implementation in west Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study design. BMC Health Services Research. 2019; 19:544 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4363-z
- ZemichaelGizaw ,Gashaw Andargie Biks, MezgebuYitayal, Geta Asrade Alemayehu, Kassahun Alemu, Tadesse Awoke, AdinoTesfahunTsegaye, Amare Tariku, TerefeDerso, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe &MulugetaBayisaChala. Sanitation predictors of childhood morbidities in Ethiopia: evidence from Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2019; 24:43 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-019-0801-0
- Angela Baschieri, Vladimir S Gordeev, Joseph Akuze, Doris Kwesiga, Hannah Blencowe, Simon Cousens, Peter Waiswa, Ane B Fisker, Sanne M Thysen, Amabelia Rodrigues, Gashaw A Biks, Solomon M Abebe, Kassahun A Gelaye, Mezgebu Y Mengistu, Bisrat M Geremew, Tadesse G Delele, Adane K Tesega, Temesgen A Yitayew, Simon Kasasa, Edward Galiwango, Davis Natukwatsa, Dan Kajungu, Yeetey AK Enuameh, Obed E Nettey, Francis Dzabeng, SeebaAmenga-Etego, Sam K Newton, Alexander A Manu, Charlotte Tawiah, Kwaku P Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Nurul Alam, M M Haider, Sayed S Alam, Fred Arnold, Peter Byass, Trevor N Croft, Kobus Herbst, Sunita Kishor, Florina Serbanescu& Joy E Lawn. “Every Newborn-INDEPTH” (EN-INDEPTH) study protocol for a randomised comparison of household survey modules for measuring stillbirths and neonatal deaths in five Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. Journal of global health. 2019; 9:1 doi: 10.7189/jogh.09.010901
- Amare Tariku, KedirAbdelaGonete, Gashaw Andargie, Kassahun Alemu, Aysheshim Kassahun Belew, MollaMeseleWassie, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, EjiguGebeye, Zegeye Abebe, AzebAtnafuGete, Melkie Edris Yesuf, Yigzaw Kebede, Abebaw Addis Gelagay&KindieFentahunMuchie. Household food insecurity predisposes to undiversified diet in northwest Ethiopia: finding from the baseline survey of nutrition project, 2016. BMC Res Notes. 2019; 12:54 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4083-9
- Harding K, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Adefris M, Loehr J, Gashaye KT, Tilahun B, Volynski M, Garg S, Abebaw Z, Dessie K, Mersha TB. A mobile health model supporting Ethiopia’s eHealth strategy. Digit Med. 2018; 4:54-65.
- Tebeje NB, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Abebe SM and Yesuf ME. Parent’s food preference and its implication for child malnutrition in Dabat health and demographic surveillance system; community-based survey using multinomial logistic regression model: North West Ethiopia; December 2017. BMC Pediatrics. 2019; 19:304
- EndalkachewDellie*, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Geta Asrade and Tsegaye Gebremedhin. Intentions to leave and associated factors among laboratory professionals working at Amhara National Regional State public hospitals, Ethiopia: an institution‑based cross‑sectional study. BMC Res Notes (2019) 12:656 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4688-z.
- Demiss Mulatu Geberu, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Tsegaye Gebremedhin and Tesfaye Hambisa Mekonnen. Factors of patient satisfaction in adultoutpatient departments of private wingand regular services in public hospitals ofAddis Ababa, Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study. BMC Health Services Research (2019) 19:869 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4685-x.
- Biks GA, Berhane Y, Worku A and Kebede Y. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition (2015) 34:9 DOI 10.1186/s41043-015-0007.
- Kassahun M, Biks GA and Teferra A. Level of immunization coverage and associated factors among children aged 12-23 months in Lay Armachiho District, North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2015; 8:239 DOI 10.1186/s13104-015-1192-y
- Tewodros Tegene, Gashaw Andargie, AnshaNegaand KedirYimam. Newborn Care Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers who gave Birth within One Year in Mandura District, Northwest Ethiopia.Clinics Mother Child Health. 2015,12:1
- Assefa Y, Biks GAand Addis K. Effect of residence on mothers’ health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross – sectional study. BMC Research Notes 2014, 7:705
- Amsalu Belete, Gashaw Andaregie, MinaleTareke, Tigabu Birhan, Telake Azale.Prevalence of anxiety and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at Debretabor general hospital Anti Retro Viral clinic Debretabor, Amhara, Ethiopia, 2014. American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 2014; 2(6): 109-114.
- Tsega Hagos, Tinsae Berihun, Abebe Assefa and Gashaw Andarge Women Engagement in Business: Evidence from Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Culture, Society and Development. 2017, 36.
- Tsega Hagos, Tinsae Berihun, Abebe Assefa and Gashaw Andarge. Women’s position in house hold decision making and violence in marriage: The case of North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and development studies. 2017;5(4):63-70.
- Belayneh T, Adefris M, and Biks GA. Previous Early Antenatal Service Utilization Improves Timely Booking: Cross-Sectional Study at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Volume 2014, Article ID 132494, 7 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/132494.
- Biks GA, Berhane Y, Worku A, Kebede Y. Why is perinatal mortality higher in health institutions delivery in rural northwest Ethiopia? A qualitative In-Depth Interview Study British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research 4(29): 2014.
- Biks GA, Elias Ali Yesuf, MezgebuYitayal Mengistu. Module 6 Health care financing. Copyright © Jhpiego and its licensors, including The Open University, 2014.
- Yitayal M, Assefa A, Biks GA, Wassie L, Abebe M. Assessment of cost of tuberculosis to patients and their families: a cross-sectional study at Addet Health Center, YilmanaDensa District, Amhara National Regional State. Ethiop Med J, Sup. 2014; 1.
- FasikaDinku and Gashaw Andargie.Assessment of voluntary counselling and testing (vct) service quality in terms of client satisfaction; a comparative study between public and private health institutions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Science Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2013; 2(1) : 1-7
- Mohammed E, Biks GA,Meseret S, and Girma E. Knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia: computer literacy in the health sector. BMC Res Notes 6 (1):106 (2013).
- Kebede B, Andargie G, Gebeyehu A. Birth outcome and correlates of low birth weight and preterm delivery among infants born to HIV-infected women in public hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia. Health 5 (2013) 25-34.
- Kebede B, Gebeyehu A &Biks GA. Use of previous maternal health services has a limited role in re-attendance for skilled institutional delivery: cross-sectional survey in Northwest Ethiopia. Int J Women’s Health. 2013; 5:79-85.
- Birhanu Z, Biks GA,Awoke T, Assefa G and Negesse D.Determinants of skilled attendance for delivery in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based nested case control study. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:130 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-130.
- Biks GA, Berhane Y, Worku A, Kebede Y. Predictors of perinatal mortality in rural population of Northwest Ethiopia: a prospective longitudinal study. BMC public health. 2013;13:168.
- Yemisrach B Okwaraji, Kim Mulholland, Joanna RM Armstrong Schellenberg, Biks GA, MengeshaAdmassu and Karen ME. The association between travel time to health facilities and childhood vaccine coverage in rural Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study. BMC Public Health 2012, 12:476.
- Gashaw Andargie. Lecture note Health Economics for all health sciences students, University of Gondar and in collaboration with the Carter Center and Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2008.
- FantahunBiadglegne, Belay Anagaw, Belay Tessema, Assefa Getachew, Gashaw Andargie, BayehAbera, YeshambelBelyhun, Andargachew Mulu, “Voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in north Ethiopian. the case of counselor’s perception, Clint satisfactions and in-service observations” Ethiopian Medical Journal.
- Biks GA, Afework Kassu, FelekeMoges, MogesTiruneh, and KahsayHuruy, Prevalence of Bacteria and Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, J HEALTH POPUL NUTR 2008 Dec;26(4):451-455.
- KahsayHuruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Simon Gebretsadik, Gashaw Andargie, Takele Tadesse, WubetBirhan, Netsanet Worku, Desta Ghebreselassie, YeshambelBelyhun, Sisay Yifru, Solomon Adugna, MogesTiruneh. High level of Antimicrobial Resistance in Shigella Species isolated from Diarrhoeal patients in the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Pharmacologyonline 2008; 2: 323-340.
- KahsayHuruy, Andargachew Mulu, GetahunMangistu, Aster Shawa, Addis Akalu, Afework Kassu, Gashaw Andargie, Daniel Elias, and Workineh Torben. Immune Reconstitution inflammatory syndrome among HIV/AIDS Patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Journal of infection Disease, 61,205-209,2008.
- BerhanuAndualem; Afework Kassu; FelekeMoges; MollaGedefaw; ErmiasDiro; Getahun Mengistu; Gashaw Andargie. Diarrhoea-associated parasites in HIV-1 seropositive and sero-negative patients in a teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian medical journal 2007; 45(2):165-70.
- Biks GA, Kassu A, Moges F, Kebede Y, Fisseha MG, Alem WA, AndualemB, Adungna S. Low prevalence of HIV infection, and knowledge, attitude and practice on HIV/AIDS among high school students in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, J.Health Dev 2007;21(2)
- MesfinAddisie, Amsalu Feleke, MelkieRndris, Daniel Mengistu, AbebawEredie. KassaWortea. Ebba Abate, Endris Mekonnen, Tesfaye Tilaye, Mamo Wubshet, Gashaw Andargie, Yigzaw Kebede, Mesfin Nigussie, Takele Tadesse, and BayeGelaw. Module on Expanded Program in Immunization for the Ethiopia Public Health Training Institute, The carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education, 2007.
- Temesgen Abebe, Mamo Wubshet, Gashaw Andargie; Lecture notes on sanitary construction I for Environmental Health Sciences Students, University of Gondar and in collaboration with the Carter Center and Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006.
- Gashaw Andargie: Lecture note on sanitary construction for Environmental Health Sciences Students, University of Gondar and in collaboration with the Carter Center and Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2004.