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1.            Ministry of Innovation and Technology, The National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy and Strategy. 2016, MINT: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. p. 27.

2.            Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The Ethiopian Education and Training Roadmap Presented at the 2020 Education World Forum. 2020  12/10/2020]; Available from:

3.            Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Institutional ICT Policy for Higher Education in Ethiopia. 2020, MOSHE: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. p. 96.

4.            Canedo, E.D., et al., Best Practices Kits for the ICT Governance Process within the Secretariat of State-Owned Companies of Brazil and Regarding these Public Companies. Information, 2018. 9(6): p. 141.

5.            Hall, E., ICT Governance Framework, I.T. Services, Editor. 2017, The University of Waikato: University in Hamilton, New Zealand. p. 7.

6.            Ministry of Innovation and Technology, Domain Naming Guideline for Ethiopian Government Websites, M.o.I.a. Technology, Editor. 2020, MINT: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. p. 16.

7.            Mazanec, B.M. and B.A. Thayer, Cyberspace and Cyber Warfare, in Deterring Cyber Warfare: Bolstering Strategic Stability in Cyberspace. 2015, Palgrave Macmillan UK: London. p. 11-28.

8.            CISCO. What Is Cybersecurity? 2020  01/10/2020]; Available from:

9.            Information Network Security Agency (INSA), Critical Mass Cyber Security Requirement Standard, INSA, Editor. 2016, INSA: Addis Ababa. p. 116.

10.          The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Computer Crime Proclamation No.958/2016, in Federal Negarit Gazetta. 2016, Federal Negarit Gazetta: Addis Ababa. p. 9104.

11.          World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). What is Intellectual Property? 2020  25/11/2020]; Available from: 12.          The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, A Proclamation for the Communication Service, in Proclamation No: 1148/2019, F.N. Gazette, Editor. 2019, Birhan and Selam Printing Enterprize: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. p. 40.